Glossary - V

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X, Y, Z]

[vagus nerve]  [Vega Test]  [Venous sinus]  [Vetivert]  [Vitamin A]  [Vitamin B complex]  [Vitamin C]  [Vitamin E]  [Vitamin F]  [Vitamin K]  [Vitamin T]  [Vitamins]

vagus nerve: a cranial nerve that operates these major functions: aortic blood pressure, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs, taste, and senses.



Vega Test: a diagnosis system that is capable of use within the field of Bio-electronic Regulatory Medicine (BER Medicine). It originated from electro-acupuncture according to Voll (EAV), which is based on measuring evoked electrical conductivity by the application of an electrode which passes 0.87 volts in a positive polarity, direct current, into specific acupuncture points. The VEGAtest requires the patient to hold a hand-held electrode. Instead of using specific acupuncture points, one point at the end of a finger or toe is used and an ampoule derived from an organ in the body is used as the main diagnostic indicator. In EAV the so-called indicator drop is the cardinal electrical abnormality, in the VEGAtest the disorder control is the indicator of dysfunction. The Vega test device is capable of checking the energies of all parts of the body, which reflect their health or disease. It is also possible to check both food and environmental intolerances.



Venous sinus: a wide channel containing blood; does not have the coating of an ordinary blood vessel. A channel of a complexsinus network which  lies between layers of the dura mater, the outermost covering of the brain. It functions to collect oxygen-depleted blood.



Vetivert: an aromatherapy oil that has a strong, woody-sweet scent. It is effective for relieving muscular aches, aiding circulation, Relieving tension, and Promoting restful sleep. Vetiver is distilled from the root of the plant.



Vitamin A: a group of compounds that play an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, and cell differentiation (in which a cell becomes part of the brain, muscle, lungs, blood, or other specialized tissue.) Vitamin A helps regulate the immune system, which helps prevent or fight off infections by making white blood cells that destroy harmful bacteria and viruses. Vitamin A also may help lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) fight infections more effectively. Vitamin A promotes healthy surface linings of the eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts. When those linings break down, it becomes easier for bacteria to enter the body and cause infection. Vitamin A also helps the skin and mucous membranes function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses. In general, there are two categories of vitamin A, depending on whether the food source is an animal or a plant.



Vitamin B complex: a group of eight individual vitamins, often referred to as the B-complex vitamins. These include: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), cyanocobalamin (B12), folic acid,  and biotin. These vitamins are essential for: The breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose (this provides energy for the body), the breakdown of fats and proteins (which aids the normal functioning of the nervous system), muscle tone in the stomach and intestinal tract, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, and liver. Some doctors and nutritionists suggest taking the B-complex vitamins as a group for overall good health. However, most agree that the best way to get our B vitamins is naturally -- through the foods we eat.



Vitamin C: a dietary supplement of asboric acid.  Unlike most mammals, humans do not have the ability to make their own vitamin C. Therefore, we must obtain vitamin C through our diet. Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, and bone. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters are critical to brain function and are known to affect mood. In addition, vitamin C is required for the synthesis of carnitine, a small molecule that is essential for the transport of fat to cellular organelles called mitochondria, for conversion to energy.  Recent research also suggests that vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, which may have implications for blood cholesterol levels and the incidence of gallstones .Vitamin C is also a highly effective antioxidant. Even in small amounts vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species that can be generated during normal metabolism as well as through exposure to toxins and pollutants (e.g. smoking). Vitamin C may also be able to regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E.



Vitamin E: a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms. Each form has its own biological activity, which is the measure of potency or functional use in the body.  Alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) is the name of the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It is also a powerful biological antioxidant. Vitamin E in supplements is usually sold as alpha-tocopheryl acetate, a form of alpha-tocopherol that protects its ability to function as an antioxidant. The synthetic form is labeled "D, L" while the natural form is labeled "D". The synthetic form is only half as active as the natural form. Antioxidants such as vitamin E act to protect your cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of energy metabolism. Free radicals can damage cells and may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Studies are underway to determine whether vitamin E, through its ability to limit production of free radicals, might help prevent or delay the development of those chronic diseases. Vitamin E has also been shown to play a role in immune function, in DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.



Vitamin F: essential fatty acids are composed of two fatty acids - linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linoleic acid (LNA) - with linoleic acid being the most complete fatty acid. There are two basic categories of EFA's (essential fatty acids) - omega-3 and omega-6, which include linoleic acid and gamma-linoleic acid. The body is not capable of manufacturing essential fatty acids, while the fatty acid arachidonic acid can be synthesized in the body from linoleic acid. Fatty acids are needed for normal growth and behavior and helps with healthy cell membranes, a well-balanced hormone level and properly working immune system. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), meaning they contain more than one cis double bond. In all omega-3 fatty acids, the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-3). Similarly, the first double bond in all omega-6 fatty acids is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6). Scientific abbreviations for fatty acids tell the reader something about their structure. One scientific abbreviation for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is 18:3n-3. The first part (18:3) tells the reader that ALA is an 18-carbon fatty acid with 3 double bonds, while the second part (n-3) tells the reader that the first double bond is in the n-3 position, which defines it as an omega-3 fatty acid. Although humans and other mammals can synthesize saturated and some monounsaturated fatty acids from carbon groups in carbohydrate and protein, they lack the enzymes necessary to insert a cis double bond at the n-6 or the n-3 position of a fatty acid (1). Consequently, omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients. The parent fatty acid of the omega-6 series is linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) and the parent fatty acid of the omega-3 series is ALA. Humans can synthesize long-chain (20 carbons or more) omega-6 fatty acids, such as dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6) and arachidoni acid (AA; 20:4n-6) from LA and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from ALA (see Metabolism and Bioavailability below). It has been estimated that the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of early humans was 1:1, but the ratio in the typical Western diet is now almost 10:1 due to increased use of vegetable oils rich in LA and declining fish consumption. A large body of scientific research suggests that increasing the relative abundance of dietary omega-3 fatty acids may have a number of health benefits.



Vitamin K: a fat-soluble vitamin. The "K" is derived from the German word "koagulation". Coagulation refers to blood clotting, because vitamin K is essential for the functioning of several proteins involved in blood clotting. The only known biological role of vitamin K is that of the required coenzyme for a vitamin K-dependent carboxylase that catalyzes the carboxylation of the amino acid, glutamic acid, resulting in its conversion to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla). Although vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation occurs only on specific glutamic acid residues in a small number of proteins, it is critical to the calcium-binding function of those proteins.



Vitamin T: a dietary supplement found in sesame seeds as well egg yolks and very little is known and available on this ingredient and therefore information is very sketchy. It is thought to strengthen the red blood cells.



Vitamins: substances derived from plants and animals that are needed in small amounts in the body. These micronutrients are not a source of energy to the body but some are heavily involved in converting macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats) into usable forms of energy. They are necessary for the normal growth, maintenance and repair of the body. Vitamins can also function as coenzymes in the body. That means they help enzymes do their job of promoting all of the body's biochemical reactions. Enzymes are so essential that out of the trillions of chemical activities occurring in your body, none would be possible without them. Enzymes are especially critical in nerve transmission, blood formation, muscle contraction, protein metabolism and energy production. In addition, vitamins are so necessary that every organ in the body won't be able to function without them. In general, the body can't make vitamins and so it is extremely important they are obtained from your diet or vitamin supplements. There are two exceptions however; vitamin D, which can be obtained through sunlight and niacin (B3), which can be made inefficiently from an amino acid (l-tryptophan). Vitamins can be broken down into two groups; fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and water-soluble. Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed with the assistance of dietary fats and are stored in the body's tissues. The fact that they are stored in the body is significant because toxic levels can accumulate if some vitamins are consumed consistently and in high amounts. The ones to watch out for in particular are A, D and K, too much can be problematic. The water-soluble vitamins on the other hand, are excreted by the body through urination and perspiration and are unlikely to buildup in the body. This again is significant because that means that we need to make sure that we are consuming these vitamins on a regular basis. This is especially true for Vitamins B and C.


Wednesday, September 12, 2012